Established June, 2000

Roy Austin   El Dorado, CA  530-621-2920


Providing a alternative green method to reducing the unwanted vegetation

 for property owners all over El Dorado County and California.

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Biosecurity is so important, not only for your animals, but for yourself.

From the Merk Veterinary Manual  
Disease Causative Organism Principal Animals Involved Known Distribution Probable Means of Spread to Man
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Cattle, sheep, goats, horses, wild herbivorous animals Worldwide; common in Africa, Asia, South America, eastern Europe Occupational exposure; foodborne in Africa, Russia, and Asia; occasionally wounds or insect bites; rarely airborne
Borreliosis Borrelia spp Rodents Worldwide Soft ticks ( Ornithodoros spp )
Lyme disease B burgdorferi Deer, wild rodents Worldwide Hard ticks ( Ixodes spp )
Relapsing fever B recurrentis Louseborne or epidemic No animal reservoir for the transmitting lice Epidemic Crushing infected lice
  Tickborne or endemic Wild rodents Epidemic Tick bites
Brucellosis Brucella abortus Cattle, bison, elk, caribou Worldwide, except North America Occupational and recreational exposure
  B melitensis

Goats, sheep
Milk, cheese, contact
  B suis Swine, caribou
Northern hemisphere
Rarely airborne
  B canis Dogs, coyotes Rare  
Capnocytophaga infection Capnocytophaga canimorsus , C cynodegmi Dogs, cats USA Bites or scratches
Campylobacter enteritis Campylobacter jejuni Domestic animals, dogs, cats, poultry, wild birds Worldwide Mainly foodborne, milk, waterborne; occupational; exposure to infected dogs and cats
  C coli Nonhuman primates, laboratory animals, domestic pigs Common  
Cat scratch disease Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae
, B quintana
Cats Worldwide Scratches, bites, “licks”
Clostridial diseases
(See also tetanus,
Clostridium perfringens ,
type A
Domestic animals Worldwide Foodborne; occasionally wound contaminant
  C septicum
, C novyi
Domestic and wild animals Worldwide Wound infection
Coliform diseases
Escherichia coli
and enteroaggressive
strains are not
Escherichia coli
0157:H7; also implicated are types 026:H11, 0111:H8, 0104:H21, and 048:H21
Cattle, man North and South America, Europe, South Africa, Japan, Australia Ingestion of undercooked ground beef, or foods or water contaminated with bovine feces
Erysipeloid Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Swine, turkeys, pigeons, sea mammals, fish Worldwide Occupational and recreational exposure
Glanders Pseudomonas mallei Equids Rare except for some regions in Asia Occupational exposure
Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans (200 serovars) in 23 serogroups Domestic and wild animals, common in rodents, dogs Worldwide Occupational and recreational exposure; water- and foodborne
Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae Armadillos Southern Texas and Louisiana Transmission of animal leprosy to man suspected
Listeriosis Listeria monocytogenes
types 1/2a, 1/2b, 4b
Numerous animals, birds Worldwide Foodborne among domestic animals by ensilage and hay; raw contaminated milk, cheese, mud, water, and vegetables are infectious; nosocomial infection in hospitals and institutions
Pseudomonas pseudomallei Rodents, sheep, goats, horses, swine, nonhuman primates, kangaroos, zoo animals Asia, Africa, Australia, South America, USA; rare Wound infection and ingestion; organisms live in soil and surface water
Mycobacteriosis Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex Many species of animals, some birds Worldwide Rare; reported in AIDS patients
  Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis
Cattle, other ruminants Worldwide  
  Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Cattle, occasionally sheep and other ruminants Worldwide Being investigated as cause of Crohn's disease; ingestion exposure
Pasteurellosis Pasteurella multocida and other species Many species of animals, birds Worldwide Wounds, scratches, bites
Plague Yersinia pestis Rodents, cats, rabbits, squirrels, related animals Foci in Western USA, South America, Asia, Africa; rare Fleas, aerosols, handling infected animals
Psittacosis and Ornithosis Chlamydia psittaci Parakeets, pigeons, parrots, turkeys, ducks, geese, etc; other isolates in cattle, sheep, goats, opossums, etc, rarely cause disease in man Worldwide; common Exposure to aerosols
Rat bite fever Streptobacillus moniliformis Rodents Worldwide; rare Bites of rodents; water- or foodborne
  Spirillum minus   Asia  
Salmonellosis Salmonella spp
(2000 serotypes, 200 seen in the USA)
Poultry, swine, cattle, horses, dogs, cats, wild mammals and birds, reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans Worldwide; common Foodborne infection, especially in the elderly, infants, or immunosuppressed; occupational and recreational exposure
Streptococcal infections Streptococcus pyogenes , other group A streptococci, uncommonly groups B-G Cattle ( S agalactiae ), swine ( S suis ), horses ( S equi ), occasionally other animals Worldwide Ingestion especially of raw milk; direct contact
Tetanus Clostridium tetani Principally herbivores, but all animals may be carriers Worldwide Wound infection and injections
(See also mycobacteriosis,
Mycobacterium bovis Cattle, rarely other animals Worldwide; rare in USA, Canada, Europe Ingestion, inhalation, occupational exposure
  M tuberculosis Monkeys, other nonhuman primates, rarely dogs, cats, and other domestic animals Worldwide Exposure to animals infected with human type tuberculosis
Tularemia Francisella tularensis
Type A virulent, type B less virulent
Wild animals, rabbits, rodents, cats, sheep Circumpolar in America, Europe, Asia Occupational and recreational exposure; insect bites; ingestion; inhalation
Vibrio food infection Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Kanagawa phenomenon) Marine shellfish Pacific basin, warm shores of Asia Ingestion
  V vulnificus
, other noncholera vibrios
  Australia, North America Ingestion; wound infection
  V cholerae
nonagglutinating types
Crabs, shrimp, mussels Worldwide except Europe; epidemic in some developing countries Ingestion
Yersiniosis Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
(6 serotypes)
Animals and birds Temperate zones Ingestion; recreational exposure
  Y enterocolitica
(50 serotypes)
Domestic animals especially pigs, dogs, cats    
Boutonneuse fever Rickettsia conorii , Rickettsia spp Dogs, rodents, other animals Europe, Asia, Africa Bite of infected ticks
Sennetsu fever
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
, E sennetsu
USA Japan Ticks
Murine typhus Rickettsia typhi ( R mooseri ) and related species Rats, cats, opossums Worldwide Infected rodent fleas, possibly cat fleas
North Asian tick-borne rickettsiosis Rickettsia siberica Wild rodents Siberia, Mongolia, China Bite of infected ticks
Q fever Coxiella burnetii Sheep, cattle, goats, cats, other mammals Worldwide; common Mainly airborne; exposure to placenta; occasionally ticks and milk
Queensland tick typhus Rickettsia australis Bandicoots, rodents Australia Bite of infected Ixodes tick
Rickettsial pox Rickettsia akari Mice Eastern USA, Africa, Russia; rare Bite of infected rodent mites, Liponyssoides spp
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii Rabbits, field mice, dogs Western hemisphere Bite of infected ticks or their crushing on the skin of Dermacentor variabilis , D andersoni
Scrub typhus Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and related species Rodents “Typhus islands” in Asia, Australia, East Indies Bite of infected larval trombiculid mites
Typhus Rickettsia prowazekii Flying squirrels Eastern USA Squirrel fleas or ticks suspected
Aspergillus spp Birds and mammals; principally environmental in decaying vegetation or grains Worldwide; sporadic Environmental exposure
Blastomycosis Blastomyces dermatitidis Dogs, cats, horses, sea mammals; principally environmental in moist soil Worldwide Environmental exposure; also reported by animal exposure
Candidiasis (Moniliasis) Candida spp Principally human reservoirs, occasionally by birds and mammals Worldwide Direct contact; often endogenous in man
Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioides immitis Cattle, sheep, horses, dogs, wild cats, desert rodents, other animals; principally environmental in specific arid foci Southwestern USA, Mexico, Central and South America Environmental exposure
Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans Pigeons, mammals; principally environmental Worldwide Environmental exposure, especially pigeon nests
Dermatophilosis Dermatophilus congolensis Cattle, horses, deer, sheep, other mammals Worldwide Contact; arthropod vectors
Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum Dogs; principally environmental in river valleys Worldwide Environmental exposure
Nocardiosis Nocardia asteroides
, N brasiliensis,
N caviae
Cattle, dogs, other mammals, fish; principally environmental in decomposing organic matter Worldwide Environmental exposure
Rhinosporidiosis Rhinosporidium seeberi Horses, cattle, mules, dogs, and birds; unidentified environmental reservoirs Worldwide, endemic in South Asia Environmental exposure
Ringworm (Dermatophytosis) Microsporum , Trichophyton , and Epidermophyton spp Dogs, cats, cattle, rodents, other animals Worldwide Direct contact with infected animals and fomites
Sporotrichosis Sporothrix schenckii Horses, other domestic and laboratory animals, birds; primarily environmental in vegetation (moss) and wood Worldwide Occupational contact, including with animals
Babesiosis Babesia microti
, B bovis
Wild rodents, cattle Worldwide; rare Bites of infected Ixodes ticks
  B divergens Cattle, other mammals Europe  
Balantidiasis Balantidium coli Swine, rats, nonhuman primates Worldwide; low incidence Ingestion, especially of water
Chagas’ disease
(American trypanosomiasis)
Trypanosoma cruzi Dogs, cats, bats, rodents, armadillos, wild and domestic animals Western hemisphere, Texas, Mexico, Central and South America Fecal material of triatoma bug, including Reduviidae (also called cone-nosed, kissing, or assassin bug); contaminates bite wounds, abrasions, or mucous membranes
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum Cattle, other animals Worldwide Occupational contact; ingestion; waterborne
Giardiasis Giardia lamblia Beavers, porcupines, dogs, other animals Worldwide; common Water and less often food; person to person
Visceral (Kala-azar)
Leishmania donovani and other species Wild canids and dogs Southern Asia, South America, Africa Bite of infected phlebotomine sandflies
Cutaneous and mucosal L tropica
, L braziliensis complex
Canids, marsupials, sloths, wild mammals, rodents    
Malaria of nonhuman primates At least 20 species of Plasmodium Monkeys, chimpanzees Tropical Americas, Asia, Africa Anopheline mosquitoes
Pneumocystis pneumonia Pneumocystis carinii
(human strain)
Rodents, dogs, cats, cattle (animal strains) Worldwide; common in AIDS patients Environmental exposure
Sarcocystosis (Sarcosporidiosis) Sarcocystis suihominis Swine Worldwide Ingestion of raw pork
  S hominis Cattle   Ingestion of raw beef
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii Mammals, especially cats, food animals, birds Worldwide; common Ingestion of oocysts shed in feces of infected cats or found in meat or raw milk
(African sleeping sickness)
Trypanosoma brucei
, T brucei rhodesiense
, T brucei gambiense
Wild and domestic dogs, ruminants, hyenas, carnivores Africa; common Bite of infected tsetse fly ( Glossina spp )
Clonorchiasis Clonorchis sinensis
(Chinese liver fluke)
Dogs, cats, swine, rats, wild animals Asia Ingestion of raw or partially cooked infected freshwater fish
Dicrocoeliasis Dicrocoelium dendriticum Ruminants Worldwide Ingestion of infected ants
  D hospes Ruminants Africa  
Echinostomiasis Echinostoma ilocanum and other Echinostoma spp Cats, dogs, rodents, fish Asia Ingestion of uncooked fish or shellfish
Fascioliasis Fasciola hepatica Cattle, sheep, other large ruminants (eg, water buffalo) Worldwide Ingestion of contaminated greens, eg, watercress
  F gigantica   Africa and western Pacific  
Fasciolopsiasis Fasciolopsis buski Swine, dogs Asian pig-raising regions Ingestion of raw tubers and nuts of aquatic plants
Gastrodiscoidiasis Gastrodiscoides hominis Swine, rats Asia Snails (metacercariae encyst on plants)
Heterophyiasis Heterophyes and other heterophids Cats, dogs, foxes, fish-eating birds Nile delta, Turkey, the Far East Ingestion of undercooked fish
Metagonimiasis Metagonimus yokogawai Cats, dogs, other fish-eating mammals, fish Asia, Europe, Siberia Ingestion of undercooked fish
Nanophyetiasis Troglotrema salmincola Dogs, fish-eating mammals, fish North America, Siberia Ingestion of undercooked fish
Opisthorchiasis Opisthorchis felineus
(Cat liver fluke)
Cats, dogs, foxes, swine Eastern Europe, Asia, Siberia Ingestion of uncooked fish containing encysted larva
  O viverrini
(Small liver fluke)
Dogs, cats, fish-eating mammals Thailand, Laos Ingestion of undercooked fish containing encysted larva
  Amphimerus pseudofelineus Dogs, cats, coyotes, opossums USA, Central and South America Undetermined
(Lung fluke disease)
Paragonimus westermani
, P africanus
, P mexicanus and other species
Dogs, cats, swine, wild carnivores China, India, Burma, Africa, tropical America Ingestion of raw or partially cooked, infected freshwater crustaceans
Schistosoma japonicum Cattle, buffalo, swine, dogs, cats, rodents Southeast Asia, China, Philippines Penetration of unbroken skin by cercariae larva from infected snails in water
  S hematobium People are the only reservoir Africa, the Middle East  
  S mansoni Baboons, rodents, cattle, dogs Africa, Arabia, tropical America  
  S mattbeei Cattle Southern Africa  
  S mekongi Dogs, monkeys Southeast Asia  
Swimmer's itch Schistosome cercariae Birds, mammals Worldwide Penetration of unbroken skin by cercariae from infected snails in fresh and salt water
Bertielliasis Bertiella studeri
, B mucronata
Primates, oribatid mites Asia, South America, Africa Ingestion of infected arthropods
Coenuriasis Taenia multiceps Definitive hosts of all species are other canids, sheep, other herbivores Worldwide in scattered foci Ingestion of tapeworm eggs in canine feces
  T serialis Lagomorphs Africa, Europe, USA; rare  
  T brauni Wild rodents Africa  
(Fish tapeworm
Diphyllobothrium latum ( Dibothriocephalus latus )
, Diphyllobothrium pacificum
Man, dogs, bears, fish-eating animals, freshwater fish Worldwide Ingestion of raw or partially cooked infected fish
(Dog tapeworm
Dipylidium caninum Dogs, cats, fleas Worldwide Ingestion of dog or cat fleas
Echinococcosis Echinococcus granulosus Dogs, sheep, cattle, swine, rodents, deer Worldwide Ingestion of tapeworm eggs
  E multilocularis Foxes, microtine rodents, coyotes, dogs, wolves, cats, voles, lemmings, shrews Alaska, Canada, Asia, Europe Ingestion of tapeworm eggs
  E vogeli Bush and hunting dogs, agouti, pacas, spiny rats Central and South America Ingestion of tapeworm eggs
(Dwarf tapeworm
Hymenolepis nana Man, rodents Worldwide Ingestion of tapeworm eggs or infected insects
Inermicapsifer infection Inermicapsifer madagascariensis Rodents Africa, southeast Asia, tropical America Ingestion of infected arthropods
Mouse or rat tapeworm Hymenolepis nana
, H diminuta
Rats, mice Worldwide Ingestion of cysticercoids in fleas, mealworms, etc, in food
Pork tapeworm disease Taenia solium Swine, man Worldwide where swine are reared (rare in USA, Canada, UK, Scandinavia) Ingestion of undercooked pork containing Cysticercus cellulosae ; direct or autogenous transmission of T solium ova in man may lead to cysticercosis
Asian taeniasis Taenia saginata taiwanensis Domestic and wild pigs, cattle, monkeys East and southeast Asia Ingestion of undercooked meat
Raillietina infection Raillietina spp Birds, mammals Tropical America, east Asia, Australia, Africa Ingestion of infected arthropods
Sparganosis Spirometra spp (pseudophyllidean tapeworms, second larval stage) Monkeys, cats, pigs, dogs, weasels, rats, chickens, snakes, frogs, mice Worldwide; common Ingestion of infected cyclops or raw infected animal flesh
Taeniasis (Beef tapeworm disease) and Cysticercosis Taenia saginata Cattle, water buffalo Worldwide Ingestion of undercooked meat containing Cysticercus bovis
(Visceral larva migrans)
Angiostrongylus costaricensis Cotton rats, slugs Central and South America, USA, east and southeast Asia Ingestion of slugs or plants contaminated by their secretions
  A cantonensis Rats, snails, slugs    
(Visceral larva migrans)
Larvae of Anisakis and Pseudoterranova spp Marine invertebrates, fish, mammals Japan, Scandinavia, western South America, western Europe, USA Ingestion of undercooked marine fish, squid, octopus
Hepatic capillariasis Capillaria hepatica Rodents, other wild and domestic animals Worldwide in scattered foci Ingestion of embryonated eggs in soil
Intestinal capillariasis C philippinensis Aquatic birds, freshwater fish Northern Philippines, Thailand, east Asia, and Egypt Ingestion of infected fish
Pulmonary capillariasis C aerophila Dogs, cats, other carnivores Worldwide Ingestion of infective eggs in soil or contaminated food
(Giant kidney worm infection)
Dioctophyma renale Dogs, mink, other carnivores, frogs Europe, Asia, North and South America; rare Ingestion of infected fish or frog's liver and mesentery
(Guinea worm infection)
Dracunculus medinensis Man Asia and Africa; common Ingestion of infected cyclops in water
  D insignis Raccoons, mink, dogs North America Ingestion of frogs and other paratenic hosts
Dirofilariasis Dirofilaria immitis Dogs, cats, raccoons, bears, mosquitoes Worldwide Bites of infected mosquitoes
Malayan filariasis Brugia malayi Cats, other carnivores, monkeys, mosquitoes Asia; common Bites of infected mosquitoes
Tropical eosinophilia Brugia pahangi      
Gnathostomiasis Gnathostoma spinigerum Dogs, cats, wild carnivores, copepods, freshwater fish East Asia, India, Australia Ingestion of infected fish or poultry
Gongylonemiasis Gongylonema pulchrum Ruminants, domestic and wild swine, other mammals; beetles Worldwide; rare Ingestion of infected arthropods
Larva migrans, cutaneous (See also gnathostomiasis, above.) Ancylostoma braziliense
, A caninum
Cats, dogs, wild carnivores Worldwide in tropics and subtropics; common Contact with infective larvae that penetrate skin
  Strongyloides stercoralis Cats, dogs, sheep, swine, etc Worldwide in tropics and subtropics; rare to common Contact with infective larvae that penetrate skin
Larva migrans, visceral (See also angiostrongyliasis and anisakiasis, above.) Toxocara canis and T cati Dogs, cats Worldwide Ingestion of embryonated eggs shed in feces of dogs and cats
  Baylisascaris procyonis Raccoons North America, Europe Ingestion of embryonated eggs in soil
Oesophagostomum spp
Ternidens diminutus
Primates Asia, Africa, South America Ingestion of infective larvae in soil
Strongyloidiasis Strongyloides stercoralis
, S fuelleborni
Dogs, cats, foxes, primates Worldwide; rare to common Contact with infective larvae that penetrate skin
Thelaziasis Thelazia spp Dogs, cats, other domestic and wild animals, flies East and south Asia; rare Infected insects
Trichinosis (Trichinellosis) Trichinella spiralis and subspecies Swine, rodents, bears, wild carnivores, marine mammals Worldwide, especially subarctic region Ingestion of either pork or flesh of wild animals that contains viable cysts
Trichostrongyliasis Trichostrongylus spp Cattle, sheep, wild ruminants Worldwide Ingestion of infective larvae on plant foods or in soil
(Whipworm infection)
Trichuris trichiura and
other Trichuris spp
Man, other primates, domestic and wild canids, swine Worldwide; common Ingestion of embryonated eggs on plant foods or in soil
Macracanthorhynchosis Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus and other spp Domestic and wild pigs, squirrels, muskrats, arctic foxes, dogs, sea otters, crustaceans, fish Worldwide; uncommon Ingestion of infected beetles
Hirudiniasis Limnatis nilotica and other leeches Cattle, buffalo, horses, sheep, dogs, pigs Africa, Asia, Europe, Chile Direct contact with leeches
Acariasis (Mange) Mites of Sarcoptes , Cheyletiella , Dermanyssus , and Ornithonyssus spp Domestic animals Worldwide Contact with infected individuals or animals; contaminated clothing
Myiasis Cochliomyia hominivorax (Screwworm) Mammals America Invasion of living tissues by larvae
  Chrysomyia bezziana   Asia, Africa  
  Cordylobia anthropophaga (Tumbu fly)   Africa  
  Cuterebra spp   North America  
  Dermatobia hominis (human botfly)   South America, Mexico  
  Gasterophilus spp (equine botfly)   Worldwide  
  Hypoderma lineatum   North America, Europe  
  Hypoderma bovis (warbles)   Asia, North Africa  
  Oestrus ovis
, Rhinoestrus purpurensis
  Wohlfahrtia spp   North America, Europe, north Africa, Asia  
Pentastomid infections Linguatula serrata
, Armillifer spp (Tongue worms)
Dogs, snakes, other vertebrates Northern hemisphere Worldwide Ingestion of infected animal tissues
Tick paralysis Envenomization of ticks Dermacentor andersoni , D variabilis and sometimes Ixodes , Haemaphysalis , Rhinocephalus , and Argas spp Various animals North America, Australia, South Africa, Ethiopia Direct contact (attachment) with tick
Tunga infections Tunga penetrans (Sand fleas, jiggers) Man, dogs, pigs, other mammals Subtropical Africa, Americas, south Asia Contact with contaminated soil
African hemorrhagic fever Marburg and Ebola viruses African green monkeys Central and southern Africa Contact with infected tissues
Filovirus infections Ebola-related Filoviruses Cynomolgus monkeys Southeast Asia Person to person
Argentinean hemorrhagic fever Junin virus (arenavirus) Rodents Argentina Rodent excretions and secretions
Bolivian hemorrhagic fever Machupo virus (arenavirus) Rodents Bolivia Rodent excretions
Brazilian hemorrhagic fever Sabiá virus (arenavirus) Rodents are suspected Brazil Rodent excretions suspected; other aerosols
California group infections
LaCross encephalitis
California group of bunyaviruses Ground squirrels, other rodents USA, Canada Bites of mosquitoes ( Aedes spp )
Tahyna fever   Hares, rodents, other mammals Europe, Africa  
Central European tick-borne encephalitis Central European encephalitis virus (flavivirus) Rodents, hedgehogs, birds, goats, sheep Europe Bites of Ixodes ticks; may be milk-borne
Colorado tick fever Colorado tick fever virus Ground squirrels, chipmunks, porcupines, small rodents Western USA; common Bites of ticks ( Dermacentor andersoni )
Contagious ecthyma (Orf) Orf virus (parapox) Sheep, goats, wild ruminants Worldwide; common Occupational exposure
Cowpox Cowpox virus Cattle, rodents, cats, zoo cats Worldwide; rare, no recent cases Contact exposure
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (bunyavirus) Cattle, rodents, sheep, goats, hares, birds Southern Russia, eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia Bites of ticks ( Hyalomma and Boophilus spp )
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis EEE virus (alphavirus) Wild birds, domestic fowl, horses, mules, donkeys Western hemisphere Mosquitoes ( Culiseta melanura and Aedes spp )
Encephalomyocarditis Encephalomyocarditis virus (picornavirus) Rats, mice, squirrels, swine, nonhuman primates Worldwide Environmental contamination
Far eastern tick-borne encephalitis (Russian spring-summer encephalitis) Far eastern (Russian spring-summer encephalitis) virus (flavivirus) Birds, small mammals, sheep Asia, Europe; rare Bites of ticks ( Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus )
Foot-and-mouth disease Foot-and-mouth disease virus (aphthovirus types A, O, C, SAT, and Asia) Cattle, swine, related cloven-hoofed animals Europe, Asia, Africa, South America Contact exposure; people quite resistant but can be carriers
Hantaviral diseases Hantaviruses (bunyavirus) Rodents Worldwide Aerosols from rodent excretions and secretions
Hantaviral pulmonary
Sin Nombre virus
Black Creek Canal virus
Peromyscus spp
, Sigmodon hispidus
USA, may be more widespread  
Hemorrhagic fever with
renal syndrome
(Korean hemorrhagic
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus (Hantaan virus) Apodemus spp China, Siberia, Korea, Manchuria, Japan  
Other hantaviral diseases Dobrava virus
Pnumala virus
Seoul virus
Apodemus spp
, Clethrionomys spp
, Rattus spp
Balkan countries
Simian herpes B virus disease Simian B virus Old World monkeys; cell cultures Worldwide; rare Bites of monkeys; occupational exposure
Influenza including type A
(swine and equine)
Influenza virus (myxovirus) Swine, ducks Worldwide; common Contact exposure; animals rarely a source
Japanese B encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus (flavivirus) Swine, wild birds, horses Asia, Pacific Islands from Japan to the Philippines Bites of mosquitoes ( Culex tritaeniorhynchus , other Culex spp )
Kyasanur forest disease Kyasanur forest virus (flavivirus) Rodents, monkeys India Bites of ticks ( Haemaphysalis spinigera )
Lassa fever Lassa virus (arenavirus) Wild rodents Africa Rodent excretions and secretions; contact in hospitals and laboratories
Louping ill Louping ill virus (flavivirus) Sheep, goats, grouse, small rodents Great Britain, Northern Ireland; rare Bites of ticks ( Ixodes ricinus )
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (arenavirus) House mice, dogs, monkeys, guinea pigs, hamsters Worldwide Host excretions and secretions
Milker's nodules (Pseudocowpox) Pseudocowpox virus (parapoxvirus) Cattle Worldwide; common Occupational exposure
Monkeypox Monkeypox virus Nonhuman primates West Africa; very rare Contact; aerosols
Murray Valley encephalitis Murray Valley encephalitis virus (flavivirus) Wild birds Australia, New Guinea; rare Bites of mosquitoes ( Culex annulirostris )
Newcastle disease Newcastle disease virus (Paramyxovirus) Fowl, wild birds Worldwide; common Occupational exposure
Omsk hemorrhagic fever Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (flavivirus) Rodents, muskrats Omsk, Siberia; rare Bites of ticks ( Dermacentor spp )
Rabies and rabies-related infections
Rabies virus
Duvenhage virus
Mokola virus
Ibadan shrew virus
Obodhiang virus
Wild and domestic canids, mustelidae, viverridae, vampire and insectivorous bats Worldwide except Australia, New Zealand, UK, Ireland, Scandinavia, Japan, Taiwan; many smaller islands are also free, including Hawaii Bites of diseased animals; aerosols in closed environments
Rift Valley fever Rift Valley fever virus (phlebovirus) Sheep, goats, cattle, camels Africa; common to rare Bites of mosquitoes ( Aedes spp ); contact on necropsy or handling fresh meat
St. Louis encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis virus (flavivirus) Wild birds, domestic fowl Western hemisphere Bites of mosquitoes ( Culex tarsalis , C pipiens-quinquefasciatus complex, C nigripalpus )
Sindbis virus disease Sindbis virus (alphavirus) Birds Eastern hemisphere; rare Bites of mosquitoes ( Culex spp )
Ross River fever Ross River virus (alphavirus) Undetermined Australia, South Pacific Islands Bites of mosquitoes ( Culex annulirostris and Aedes spp )
Tanapox Tanapox virus Asian and African monkeys Asia, Africa, and in colonies of monkeys Contact; aerosols
Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever Gnanarito virus (arenavirus) Rodents Venezuela Rodent excretions
Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis VEE virus (alphavirus) Rodents, equids Western hemisphere; common Bites of mosquitoes ( Monsonia , Aedes , Culex spp )
Vesicular stomatitis Vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana and New Jersey strains) Swine, cattle, horses, bats, rodents, other wild mammals North and South America Contact exposure and insect bites, including mosquitoes and biting flies ( Phlebotomus spp )
Wesselsbron fever Wesselsbron virus (flavivirus) Sheep Southern Africa, southeast Asia Bites of mosquitoes ( Aedes , Mansonia , Culex spp )
West Nile fever West Nile virus (flavivirus) Wild birds, horses Eastern hemisphere; common Bites of mosquitoes ( Culex univittatus , C pipiens , C modestus )
Western equine encephalomyelitis WEE virus (alphavirus) Wild birds, domestic fowl, horses, mules, donkeys, bats, reptiles, amphibians Western and central USA, Canada, South America Mosquitoes ( Culex tarsalis in USA, other Culex and Aedes spp outside USA)
Yabapox Yabapox virus African monkeys Africa; rare Contact; aerosols
Yellow fever Yellow fever virus (flavivirus) Monkeys, baboons Tropical America, Africa; sporadic Bites of mosquitoes ( Aedes aegypti in urban cycles, Haemagogus spp in jungle cycles in South America, Aedes spp in jungle cycles in Africa)




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